Bouwen met Staal | Veelzijdig, flexibel, duurzaam Bouwen met Staal

Cost components

Information and literature about cost estimation of steel structures

« terug naar Parametrisch ontwerpen

When an integral analyses process is automated, the same process can be used to integrally optimise. However, a certain optimisation criterion/goal is required.

An IAM produces variants, from one variant multiple quantities can be extracted. For example: the amount of welding volume and the total weight. These quantities are translated to a price/costs, which makes it possible to optimise costs. The costs assumed will determine the “ratio of relevance” between quantities extracted, and will ultimately influence the optimal solution. 

Reference unit prices

On this page, realistic reference unit prices that can be used in an integral optimisation will be displayed. It should be noted that these reference unit prices are estimates, that will provide more insight in costs, but they will never be exact representation.

References unit prices will be shared on this page soon.



In the list below, interesting literature can be found about cost-estimation models of steel structures.

Steel Frames:

  • L. Xu and D. E. Grierson, Computer Automated Design of Semirigid Steel Frameworks, Journal of Structural Engineering 119, 1740 (1993)
  • L.M.C. Simões, Optimization of frames with semi-rigid connections, Computers & Structures, Volume 60, Issue 4 (1996)
  • M. Steenhuis, K. Weynand, and A. M. Gresnigt, Strategies for economic design of unbraced steel frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 46, 88 (1998)
  • N. B. H. Ali, J. C. Mangin, and A. F. Cutting-Decelle, An overall approach to structural design of steelworks using genetic algorithms, System-based vision for strategic and creative design — Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on structural and construction engineering, Balkema, Rome , 481 (2003).
  • L. Pavlovčič, A. Krajnc, and D. Beg, Cost function analysis in the structural optimization of steel frames, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 28, 286 (2004)
  • N. Bel Hadj Ali, M. Sellami, A. F. Cutting-Decelle, and J. C. Mangin, Multi-stage production cost optimization of semi-rigid steel frames using genetic algorithms, Engineering Structures 31, 2766 (2009)
  • S. O. Degertekin and M. S. Hayalioglu, Harmony search algorithm for minimum cost design of steel frames with semi-rigid connections and column bases, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 42, 755 (2010)

Steel Trusses:

  • J. Jalkanen, Tubular Truss Optimization Using Heuristic Algorithms (2007)
  • K. Mela, Mixed Variable Formulations for Truss Topology Optimization (2013)
  • M. Helminen, Mika helminen, optimization of a trussed steel portal frame, (2017)
  • K. Mela, T. Tiainen, and M. Heinisuo, Economical design of high strength steel trusses using multi-criteria optimization, Eurosteel 2017 1, 9 (2017)

Welding costs:

  • K. Jármai and J. Farkas, Cost calculation and optimisation of welded steel structures, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 50, 115 (1999).
  • F. Neessen, Zin en Onzin over laskostenbeheersing, Product Informatie Bulletin , 1 (2008) (Dutch)


  • J. Haapio, Feature-Based Costing Method for Skeletal Steel Structures based on the Process Approach, Ph.D. thesis, Tampere University of Technology (2012)

Interesting literature missing?
Please inform Rayaan Ajouz: or